4, In 1974 Tarkovsky produced an autobiographical film a la Fellini’s Amarcord (1973), entitled Zerkalo (Mirror), which was criticized as being labyrinth in form and parabolic in nature. How does time-pressure makes itself felt in a shot? This new way of conceptualizing montage involves the matching of the internal rhythms within the shots with each other, and it is this new brand of temporal linkage that dictates the cut (not the concept which dictates the cut in Eisensteinian montage). Editing represents intervals of time dealing with the diversity of life perceived. . Tarkovsky’s concept of time-pressure is like a meteorological time-front that propagates from shot-to-shot and throughout the film, or a cardiopulmonary time-pulse that thrust against the arterial walls of the scenes, bringing temporal oxygenation to the shots and overall meaning to the film-form. . For him cinematography was not entertainment, it was art in the best meaning of this word. In October 1964, Nikita Khrushchev was removed from office by a conspiracy among his deputies, and Leonid Brezhnev placed in as the secretary of the Central Committee and Alexei N. Kosygin as the chairman of the Council of Ministers. Tarkovsky’s idea of “Sculpting in Time” proposes cinema as the representation of distinctive currents or waves of time, conveyed in the shot by its internal rhythm. Andrei Tarkovsky (1932–1986) is widely considered the greatest director of postwar Soviet cinema. “ Formalism and Neo-Formalism.” In. In 1957, the Union of Filmmakers is formed to protect filmmakers but it also becomes a form of control on the Soviet filmmakers because censorship is still in effect and applied to all the Soviet film industry, especially when Brezhnev is the general secretary. Mirror extracts images from thought-memories and surrounds them in a world of time. In Tarkovsky’s view, the Eisensteinian theoretical structure of the montage of attraction, as a form of editing that brings together two concepts and generates a new, third one, cannot fully explain the nature of cinema. In Mirror, the act of remembering alternates between two worlds, one actual and the other virtual, and sometimes, memory exist simultaneously in both worlds. It is not surprising that a cinematic physics exists which leads us to ask questions such as: “what is a time-thrust and/or time-pressure?” In response to this question, Totaro replies, simply, that it is the use of nature in cinema that guides and gauges the degrees of temporality of the audiovisual presentations and since nature exhibits an immense repertoire of all kinds of activities [water, fire, rain, mud, snow, wind, and even milk (just to name a few)], they become propagators of time-image_s in which the flow of time is perceived directly through a _time-thrust or time-pressure. 10098. It is a mysterious and inaccessible film, sharing a Best Direction award with Robert Bresson’s L’Argent (1983) at the 1983 Cannes film festival. Material objects are reflected in a Mirror-image (time-image) as a double movement of liberation and capture, where the virtual object Mirror_s the real; as if, momentarily, the image in a _Mirror separates from its surface and crystallizes into physicality, only to reabsorb again and become mentality. Tarkovsky explains that editing cannot be the dominant structural element of a film, as the protagonists of Soviet montage cinema (Kuleshov and Eisenstein) maintained in the 1920’s. The function of editing is to organize the time-image_s into a wave structure inherent to film, that is, the _time-pressure wave. 15, The time-thrust can be easily overlooked because they are often unperceivable optical and sound situations, with no commensurable links to each other and no easily inferable connections to conventional referents. There are three distinctive periods that differentiate time from an otherwise unified portrayal of the personal history of its principal protagonist, Alexei, the narrator (voice-over), who is glimpsed only the end of the film: 2) the ‘past’ of post-WWII (mid-1940s). Moreover, many anti-Russian political movements spring up within former Soviet states which, seek their own independence (for instance, the war for independence in Chechnya). 11 What is difficult about Tarkovsky’s cinema is its praxis. The movement-image is a spatialized cinema, as seen in Hollywood genre films, where time is measured by movement and determined by action. The flow of time running through the shots creates the rhythm of the film. [ Tarkovsky's Diaries ]. It does so by recording on film the time-waves which flow beyond the edges of the frame; and like time’s dual nature (particle-wave), the dominant factor in Tarkovskian cinema is a dual or two-way process in which a real film lives within time only if time lives within it. . View Andrei Tarkovsky Research Papers on Academia.edu for free. Therefore, Soviet cinema remained in the State’s repressive grip until the advent of glasnost in 1985-86, and social realism was not categorically rejected as the official style of Soviet film art until a unanimous vote by the membership of the Filmmakers Union in June 1990. It was a time when Soviet politics progressively opened up to the United States and split with the Chinese communist ideology. He doesn't explain. Actors Andrei Tarkovsky and Donatas Banionis chatting on the set of the film 'Solaris' in Moscow, circa 1972. Thus, a breach existed between the citizen and the person. Furthermore since Eisenstein began his career in the Soviet theater where spectacle and attraction were a dominant part of the show, Soviet montage techniques are based on the montage of attractions, and its rhythm is developed as a sequence of images progressing through time. In Mirror, history becomes an enigmatic Mirror that reflects three different levels of temporality in which time expresses a sense of universal oneness. A film buff and addict, he views film as the proper medium for philosophy in the 21st century. ,,Art is born and takes hold wherever there is a timeless and insatiable longing for the spiritual, for the ideal: that longing which draws people to art. Henri Bergson [1859 – 1941] was a French philosopher who distinguished between habit formed memories that are stored in the brain (matter => physical), pure recollections that permeate consciousness (mind => mental), and unsolicited independent memories that are detached from perception, appearing to move freely in a virtual flow of thoughts or quasi-thought-images (thought => temporal). Houses are made from slats, planed boards, and plywood. Time consists of this split, and it is … time, that we see in the crystal [the crystal of Mirror]” (Deleuze’s Cinema 2, pp. We have Russian actors, Russian settings, Russian attitudes. Modern man, however, does not want to make any sacrifice, even though true affirmation of the self can only be expressed in sacrifice. Therefore, Eisensteinian editing is a montage of attraction between shots, and elements in the shots juxtapose concepts, allowing the viewer to produce intellectual connections and meaning. The image is quiet, peaceful and serene. Donato Totaro explains that the physicality relates to matter as an extension of space and to the movement-image, while the mentality is tied into memory as a duration of thought and the time-image. Modern cinema has been redefined in Deleuzian terms of a new audiovisual space-time parameter, the time-image (or sound-image). Eisenstein considered montage as the basis of art cinema (film art). This view is akin to the inconsistencies that exist in Newton’s law of motions (analogous to Eisenstein’s laws of montage) in explaining why light bends around the sun or in predicting the perihelion shift of the orbit of Mercury. What should be explained anyhow? This film was shot by the cinematographer Sven Nykvist, and it is a visionary piece concerning a small group of people on an isolated Baltic island and the possibility of a nuclear holocaust. He is the patriarch of the contemporary Soviet “poetic film.” Tarkovsky strongly opposed montage and believed that the basis of art cinema (film art) is the internal rhythm of the shot. This technological symphony is abruptly followed by a cut to astronaut Kelvin’s childhood dacha. It was his last film, as he died of lung cancer in Paris in December 1986. Rhythm exists in the life of the object visibly recorded in the frame while the temporal movement is conveyed by the flow of the life-process in the shot. Vast spaces, roads on which it's impossible to get run over by a passing car. Radio was the main source of entertainment, information, and political propaganda, and jazz, blues, gospel, and folk music, became immensely popular. 5 In 1985, he completed his final film, the international co-production The Sacrifice (1986) in Sweden. Tarkovsky’s editing style disturbs the passage of time by introducing time-flow interruptions (the act of cutting) which create temporal distortions. “I think that this approach is over-politicised,” he says. ‘speech genres’) interact with literary genres to define a ‘genre memory’ [Tarkovsky] which sets limits to each genre … This term (i.e. After a military coup in 1991 (marking the end of the Soviet Union), Boris Yeltsin governs Russia until 2000. It exposes the direct figure of time by the deliberate and careful joining of shots of uneven time-pressure. The implication is tremendous because time behaves much like a light-wave that never stops moving, but also as a particle-wave that can be relatively arrested (an implication that allows for the direct perception of time in Tarkovsky’s cinema). Tarkovsky's films are, to say the least, hard to classify, because to him, cinema was an art form that existed to help us answer the many important philosophical questions about life and existence. – 1510]). Cutting does not engender, or recreate, a new quality; but it brings out a quality already inherent in the frame that it joins. non-diegetic space). "The connection between man's behavior and his destiny has been destroyed; and this tragic breach is the cause of his sense of instability in the modern world. Subscribe via Email or RSS Feed. A village. Time-thrusts can occur off-screen within or without a diegetic setting (i.e. Not a bad summing-up of the premise of a movie even whose biggest fans struggle to explain. Andrei Tarkovsky was the most spiritual and poetic director of all time. Posted on February 9, 2016 November 23, ... where he studied Philosophy and Political Science. The time-pressure intensities are inherent to the shots and  exist naturally as variant forms of the rhythmic manifestations of the direct perception of time. This type of time-thrust cutting, which he used to make his thesis film The Steamroller and the Violin (1960) is in contrast to the Soviet montage style developed by Sergei Eisenstein. In the entire history of cinema there has never been a director, who has made such a dramatic stand for the human spirit as did Andrei Tarkovsky. 12 He is not trying to subvert bourgeois narrative codes. His editing style is dictated by the rhythmic pressures in the segments of film. The 20 Best Tarkovskian Films Not By Andrei Tarkovsky Posted on September 30, 2016 November 3, 2019 by Gabriele Manfredi Andrei Tarkovsky was a poet of cinema who was famous for his techniques, his use of long takes, slow dollies, atmospheric use of elements, and legendary theories about cinema as sacrifice and cinema as sculpting in time. But the cut is theoretically justified because the stark contrast between the chaotic _time-pressure in the technological montage and the tranquil rhythm in the shot of the natural landscape reflects one of the film’s thematic conflicts of technology/nature, space/earth (1992, 24-25). From 1986 to 1991, Mikhail Gorbachev takes power in the Soviet Union, marking the beginning of the final stages of the Soviet government. When film is not a document, it is a dream. Soviet montage/editing is based on the interplay of concepts, where the concepts dictate the editing rhythm. 21. During the latter half of the twentieth century, Andrei Tarkovsky received arguably more critical admiration for his films than any Soviet director. What happened to Sergei Paradjanov [1924 -1990] during the Brezhnev years was extreme. The individual had to live within two worlds, one political and the other personal. SHARES. (from "Sculpting in Time`). The Russian new wave filmmakers are many, among them, Andrei Tarkovsky, Sergei Paradjanov, Alexei German, Tengiz Abuladze, Otar Iosseliani, and Nikita Mikhalkov. Andrei Tarkovsky was the most spiritual and poetic director of all time. Winning the Ecumenical Jury Prize in Cannes, Stalker sold 4.3 million tickets in the Soviet Union and became an evergreen cult movie in the West, where critics hailed it as a stark political allegory and even a Russian cousin of Francis Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now (1979). Retroactively, a self-generating structure forms during editing because of the inherent material temporality that is caught during shooting. He was a one of a kind genius and he created his own language, his own world. The 1930s were called the Great Depression (1929-1939). Rhythm is not the metrical sequences of the shots but the time-thrust within the frames. Hence, the main characteristic of poetic film is the process of Sculpting in Time as opposed to Eisenstein montage of attractions. Paradjanov proceeds by means of ‘perceptual dislocation’ making it impossible at any given moment to imagine a stable time-space continuum for the dramatic action. Montage defines the way in which images are cut and assembled together. The grouping of the shots creates the structure of a film, but not necessarily its rhythm. The time-pressure in this shot is opposite from that in the previous shots. by David George Menard This is a radical movement in modern cinema because it liberates film from the constraints of the author who creates it, allowing the film to live in time on its own. His concept of the “time-thrust” is quite simple because the editor/director does not have to create the mystical effect produced by the time-images. In the Spring of 1968, the USSR invades Czechoslovakia and Prague falls under the control of the Soviet Union; and at the same time, a dissident movement begins in the USSR and the deportations of dissident trouble makers becomes policy. We are gradually forgetting about this, and at the same time, inevitably, losing all sense of human calling.. Tarkovsky was a deep thinker who rejected the commercialized society and the coca cola culture. In a brilliant occasion of praxis aligning with theory, Tarkovsky writes: “The distinctive time running through the shots makes the rhythm…rhythm is not determined by the length of the edited pieces, but by the pressure of the time that runs through them (1986, 117). Tarkovsky hypothesizes that time can be directly perceived in film. It is an eerily dismal film about a writer and a scientist who are guided by a man called the Stalker, on a journey through a mysterious wasteland referred to as the “Zone.” Their goal being to travel to a place called the “Room” where all wishes may be granted, but they fail in their quest through lack of will power. A feeling of the lack of stability and solidity hangs above it all. As Totaro notes: Matching shots of differing rhythms can be done without destroying this organicprocess if it grows out of an inner necessity. 6. Andrei Tarkovsky (1932–1986) was a Russian film director, screenwriter and film theorist. In 2000, Alexandrei Putin, former head of the KGB (Soviet CIA), becomes Prime minister of Russia. The “montage of attraction” puts objects, ideas, and symbols in collision to produce an intellectual and critical response from the viewer. Tarkovsky’s theory derives from the incomplete understanding of time that exists in Eisenstein’s theory (whose temporal concepts are very similar to the indirect perception and treatment of time in Newtonian physics). Several films from Tarkovsky’s later work will be examined for montage elements that support or contravene these theories. In the past whenever I watched American films set in villages or small provincial towns I was always getting the impression houses and street decorations were badly made. 20. His first feature film was. We are making our films in Russia. His films are deeply spiritual. Soviet montage views movement and space as the distinctive characteristics of cinema as opposed to theater. 3 Tarkovsky was probably influenced in his decision to study at the VGIK (Moscow film school) under Mikhail Romm by his father, the Russian poet Arseni Tarkovsky. The second stage occurs between 1964 and 1982 when Leonid Brezhnev [1906 – 1982] becomes the general secretary of the communist party, and a more conservative, party-centered government is set up as the hallmark of this regime. The crystal-image is the indivisible unity of the virtual image and the actual image … The crystal-image shapes time as a constant two-way Mirror [like in Mirror] that splits the present into two heterogeneous directions, “one of which is launched towards the future while the other falls into the past. It is common knowledge among Tarkovsky scholars and fans that an important element of Andrei Tarkovsky’s film aesthetics is his unique and highly controlled use of nature. The time-image is a temporalized cinema, as in the European art films, where the temporal links between shots are non-rational and incommensurable, resulting in the emergence of empty, disconnected spaces; what Deleuze calls “any-space-whatevers.” 18 Totaro correlates Bergson’s views on memory 19 with another form of the time-image concept: The crystal-image, which forms the cornerstone of Deleuze’s time-image, is a shot that fuses the pastness of the recorded event with the presentness of its viewing. 2. Superquakers. An example is the car journey sequence in Solaris. He caught tuberculosis and recovered in a hospital. This article presents an analysis of the recent Russian cinematic sensation, Andrei Zvyagintsev's fourth feature, Leviathan (2014). Montage of attraction does not allow the film to continue beyond the frame, nor permit the spectator to bring personal feelings to what is perceived. Russian director Andrei Tarkovsky with his wife Irma Raush waiting before entering the audience, at the Venice Movie festival, Lido, Venice 1962. Discover what happened on this day. The material duality of time [in Einstein’s general theory of relativity, time (t) is an equivalent coordinate to those of space (x, y, z), where all four quantities are expressible as a single 4-vector in space-time (x, y, z, t)]. But at the same time it is not aimed a particular political pro… The Stalin period of the 1930s was marked by the great political purges, and even though the postwar period of the mid-1940s was a victorious time for the Soviet nation, the people lived in fear of being sent to gulags (or even being killed) for doing anything wrong. He is the patriarch of the contemporary Soviet “poetic film.” Tarkovsky strongly opposed montage and believed that the basis of art cinema (film art) is the internal rhythm of the shot. Today, when cinema seems to be reduced to a banality the films by Tarkovsky are nearly forgotten. In short, the time-image has an image-structure, a coalescence of the actual and the virtual. His authorial signature comes from his editing style and is the mark of his attitudes to the conception of cinema and philosophy of life. Abstract. What his constant use of tracking shots, slow motion, and never-ending pans - indeed his entire visual rhetoric - seems to emphasize is that he is moulding the images. 10. In 1976, he directed an acclaimed stage version of Hamlet in Moscow. The film image comes into being during shooting, and exists within the frame. Tarkovsky’s sense of time is related to his innate perception of nature. He sets up a conservative government but still remains open to the benefits of the Western economy, allowing collateral political cooperation. He appears to subscribe to the classical alternative, shot or montage, and to opt strongly for the shot (the ‘cinematographic figure’ only exists inside the shot). Unfortunately, circa 1990, the Soviet Union collapsed and many scientists lost their jobs. Andrei Arsenevich Tarkovsky (1932–1986) was a Soviet film director, writer, and theorist. - G.C. The Soviet cinema was based on old fashioned production systems, with a few internationally acclaimed directors (the others remained in obscurity), and suffered from the lack of good screenwriters since many Russian writers looked down to script writing as an inferior activity. It is a psychological film embedded deep in Freudian and Jungian imagery, making the Pavlovian tactics of Eisensteinian montage look primitive. “Gilles Deleuze’s Bergsonian Film Project – Part 2: Cinema 2: The Time-Image.”. Rhythm is at the core of the “poetic film.” But Tarkovsky’s idea of rhythm is not that of Eisenstein, instead he envisioned cinematic rhythm as some kind of movement within the frame, and not as a sequence of shots in time. The point of these techniques is not to confuse the spectator but to prevent the kind of comfortable, familiar, and logically continuous representational space associated with traditional narrative form. The first stage of relaxation in the arts is referred to as the Khrushchev period {1958 – 1964} (Nikita Khrushchev [1894 – 1971]). The temporal consistency that propagates through the shot is defined as its rhythmic intensity (or “sloppiness”). It follows from cinematic physics that editing is the assembly of the shots which results from the time-impedance matching (analogous to the impedance matching characteristics of filters used in electronic circuitry) of their inherent time-pressure_s. But film is able to record time outwardly with visible signs, recognizable to the senses – so time becomes the very foundation of cinema, as sound is in music, color in painting, character in drama. …This is one of the few examples of Tarkovsky using expressionistic editing and deliberately matching shots of differing time-pressure_s. What purports to be art begins to looks like an eccentric occupation for suspect characters who maintain that any personalized action is of intrinsic value simply as a display of self-will. The history of the post-Revolution USSR can be broken into three major periods: 1) Stalinist period (1927-1953) 2) post-Stalinist period (1953-1986) and 3) Gorbachev (and post) period (1986-). Entire America is a kind of Disneyland (decorations). From my point of view Tarkovsky is one of the most underrated directors. 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