history of america pdf

Native American History Timeline As explorers sought to colonize their land, Native Americans responded in various stages, from cooperation to indignation to revolt. 0000021977 00000 n He promoted civil rights cautiously, and sent in the Army when trouble threatened over racial integration in Little Rock Arkansas. Illegal use of LSD … That meant George W. Bush, then in the lead, carried Florida and the election. [258] Following the 2010 midterm elections, which resulted in a Republican-controlled House of Representatives and a Democratic-controlled Senate,[259] Congress presided over a period of elevated gridlock and heated debates over whether or not to raise the debt ceiling, extend tax cuts for citizens making over $250,000 annually, and many other key issues. A more significant European front was opened on D-Day, June 6, 1944, in which American and Allied forces invaded Nazi-occupied France from Britain. Lee invaded Pennsylvania in search of supplies and to cause war-weariness in the North. Declaration of War", "Feature: World War I and isolationism, 1913–33", "Pandemics and Pandemic Scares in the 20th Century", https://history.state.gov/milestones/1921-1936/good-neighbor, "Short History of Amache Japanese Internment Camp", "Ralph Smith's eyewitness account of the Trinity trip to watch blast", "American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics", "Reagan Nominating Woman, an Arizona Appeals Judge, to Serve on Supreme Court", "Report Details Alleged Abuse of Guantanamo Bay, Abu Ghraib Detainees", "US: Prolonged Indefinite Detention Violates International Law: Current Detention Practices at Guantanamo Unjustified and Arbitrary", "CIA's final report: No WMD found in Iraq", "Poll: 62 Percent Say Iraq War Wasn't Worth Fighting", Obama Catches Blame on Tactics of Torture That He Ended, The New US Anti-Torture Law: A Genuine Step Forward, Obama Orders Secret Prisons and Detention Camps Closed, Trump Poised to Lift Ban on C.I.A. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party. The early British colonies were established by private groups seeking profit, and were marked by starvation, disease, and Native American attacks. Typically, people would sign a contract agreeing to a set term of labor, usually four to seven years, and in return would receive transport to America and a piece of land at the end of their servitude. [239], In May 2011, after nearly a decade in hiding, the founder and leader of Al Qaeda, Osama bin Laden, was killed in Pakistan in a raid conducted by U.S. naval special forces acting under President Obama's direct orders. Plantation owners, realizing that emancipation would destroy their economic system, sometimes moved their slaves as far as possible out of reach of the Union army. Starting in the late 1950s, institutionalized racism across the United States, but especially in the South, was increasingly challenged by the growing Civil Rights Movement. The movement reorganized after the Civil War, gaining experienced campaigners, many of whom had worked for prohibition in the Women's Christian Temperance Union. PDF [DOWNLOAD] Summary of Hillary s America: The Secret History of the Democratic Party (Dinesh D. peluwogap. After Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 election, seven Southern states seceded from the union and set up a new nation, the Confederate States of America (Confederacy), on February 8, 1861. 2. Gradually the U.S. purchased the Native American tribal lands and extinguished their claims, forcing most tribes onto subsidized reservations. 0000001377 00000 n Despite being Calvinists and building the Reformed Church in America, the Dutch were tolerant of other religions and cultures and traded with the Iroquois to the north. The war was frustrating for both sides. At home, he ended McCarthyism, expanded the Social Security program and presided over a decade of bipartisan comity. Under the act the United States annexed nearly 100 islands in the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. As time went on, foraging for berries and seeds became an important alternative to hunting. Women surrounded by posters in English and Yiddish supporting Franklin D. Roosevelt, Herbert H. Lehman, and the American Labor Party teach other women how to vote, 1936. [115] From 1890 to 1908, southern states effectively disfranchised most black voters and many poor whites by making voter registration more difficult through poll taxes, literacy tests, and other arbitrary devices. Interventions in Latin America and the Caribbean presents a concise account of the full sweep of U.S. military invasions and interventions in Central America, South America, and the Caribbean from 1800 up to the present day. The British raided and burned Washington, but were repelled at Baltimore in 1814 – where the "Star Spangled Banner" was written to celebrate the American success. [77] Its goal was primarily to remove Native Americans, including the Five Civilized Tribes, from the American Southeast; they occupied land that settlers wanted. Their definition of the proper role of government tended to be negative, and Jackson's political power was largely expressed in negative acts. He had no sympathy for American Indians, initiating the removal of the Cherokees along the Trail of Tears. Economic growth in terms of overall GDP was even greater. America, except in so far as it lay at the margin of English history. Gorbachev tried to save Communism in the Soviet Union first by ending the expensive arms race with America,[218] then by shedding the East European empire in 1989. [18], After a period of exploration sponsored by major European nations, the first successful English settlement was established in 1607. While public health facilities grew rapidly in the Progressive Era, and hospitals and medical schools were modernized,[160] the nation in 1918 lost 675,000 lives to the Spanish flu pandemic.[161]. Soon the colonists in the South feared all natives as enemies. In perhaps the turning point of the war, Lee's army was badly beaten at the Battle of Gettysburg, July 1–3, 1863, and barely made it back to Virginia. Mining for silver and copper opened up the Mountain West. In 1966 Friedan and others established the National Organization for Women (NOW) to act for women as the NAACP did for African Americans. [105] On the homefront, industrial expansion in the North expanded dramatically, using its extensive railroad service, and moving industrial workers into munitions factories. Reforms of the Age included the Civil Service Act, which mandated a competitive examination for applicants for government jobs. [205], The Watergate scandal, involving Nixon's cover-up of his operatives' break-in into the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex destroyed his political base, sent many aides to prison, and forced Nixon's resignation on August 9, 1974. [252][253], From 2009 to 2010, the 111th Congress passed major legislation such as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, informally known as Obamacare, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act[257] and the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act, which were signed into law by President Obama. In the following years, strains developed in the relations between the colonists and the Crown. [166] This position was affirmed by Cordell Hull, Roosevelt's Secretary of State at a conference of American states in Montevideo in December 1933. [219], The Republican Party expanded its base throughout the South after 1968 (excepting 1976), largely due to its strength among socially conservative white Evangelical Protestants and traditionalist Roman Catholics, added to its traditional strength in the business community and suburbs. Reagan met four times with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, who ascended to power in 1985, and their summit conferences led to the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. From 1880 to 1914, peak years of immigration, more than 22 million people migrated to the United States. Permanent villages began to develop in this region as early as 1,000 BCE, and these communities celebrated by the gift-giving feast of the potlatch. In 2007, the United States entered its worst economic crisis since the Great Depression, which was followed by slower-than-usual rates of economic growth during the early 2010s. [174] The US Supreme Court held the Japanese American internment camps to be constitutional in a 6–3 decision in Korematsu v. United States Supreme Court case. His time in office was marked by such notable events as the acceleration of the United States' role in the Space Race, escalation of the American role in the Vietnam War, the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the jailing of Martin Luther King Jr. during the Birmingham campaign. Americans come in all colors, have all types of religions, and speak many languages from all over the world. They killed 3 people and injured an estimated 264 others. But Democrats tended to oppose programs like educational reform mid the establishment of a public education system. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaign into Maryland was designed to hurt Union morale and win European support. American corpses sprawled on the beach of Tarawa, November 1943. [207] On the world stage, Carter brokered the Camp David Accords between Israel and Egypt. Like Jamestown, Plymouth suffered from disease and starvation, but local Wampanoag Indians taught the colonists how to farm maize. [4] After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, the United States entered World War II and financed the Allied war effort and helped defeat Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy in the European theater. There was also unusually severe weather during the early part of the decade. Americans were increasingly angry at the British violation of American ships' neutral rights to hurt France, the impressment (seizure) of 10,000 American sailors needed by the Royal Navy to fight Napoleon, and British support for hostile Indians attacking American settlers in the Midwest with the goal of creating a pro-British Indian barrier state to block American expansion westward. The primary American goal of 1945–1948 was to rescue Europe from the devastation of World War II and to contain the expansion of Communism, represented by the Soviet Union. The company's first expedition was led by Peter Minuit, who had been governor of New Netherland from 1626 to 1631 but left after a dispute with the Dutch government, and landed in Delaware Bay in March 1638. Reformers eager to turn their programs into legislation called for a more active government. The Folsom culture was similar, but is marked by the use of the Folsom point. Simultaneously, gold was discovered in California in 1849, attracting over 100,000 men to northern California in a matter of months in the California Gold Rush. This was achieved by tens of millions of workers moving from low-productivity occupations to high-efficiency jobs, improvements in productivity through better technology and management, and the move into the active labor force of students, retired people, housewives, and the unemployed, and an increase in hours worked. After a prosperous decade in the 1920s, the Wall Street Crash of 1929 marked the onset of the decade-long worldwide Great Depression. Their agenda-much influenced by Keynesian economic theory-envisioned massive public expenditure that would speed economic growth, thus providing the public resources to fund larger welfare, housing, health, and educational programs.[194]. Other Confederate armies followed suit and the war ended with no postwar insurgency. 0000006704 00000 n The first British colony in North America was established at Roanoke by Walter Raleigh in 1585, but failed. The Republican Party's central leader by 1980 was Ronald Reagan, whose conservative policies called for reduced government spending and regulation, lower taxes, and a strong anti-Soviet foreign policy. x�b```b``����� �� �� @16���>k�1�004�d@Ϩ\�ӈP�m�9����2�1́��QPPP����d�耙 ��e�@Z���"*�L��mX�/00p9�3t3�`�g��@|���TM�]2�+\d9sy��G�}� �yz����v��p� 1944–1956 – v. 9. Germany decided to take the risk and try to win by cutting off supplies to Britain through the sinking of ships such as the RMS Lusitania; the U.S. declared war in April 1917 mainly from the threat of the Zimmermann Telegram. Anti-slavery forces rose in anger and alarm, forming the new Republican Party. At the Treaty of Paris peace conference the United States acquired the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam. Washington's strategy forced the first army out of Boston in 1776, and was responsible for the surrender of the second and third armies at Saratoga (1777) and Yorktown (1781). As a result of growing public frustration with both parties in Congress since the beginning of the decade, Congressional approval ratings fell to record lows, with only 11% of Americans approving as of October 2013.[261]. Though the nation lost more than 400,000 military personnel and civilians,[183] the U.S. mostly prospered untouched by the devastation of war that inflicted a heavy toll on Europe and Asia. Older textbooks start with the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 and emphasize the European background, or they start around 1600 and emphasize the American frontier. Lee. 1892–1908 – v. 6. [40], The American Revolutionary War began at Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts in April 1775 when the British tried to seize ammunition supplies and arrest the Patriot leaders. Perry, Elisabeth Israels, and Karen Manners Smith, eds. [140], Dissatisfaction on the part of the growing middle class with the corruption and inefficiency of politics as usual, and the failure to deal with increasingly important urban and industrial problems, led to the dynamic Progressive Movement starting in the 1890s. [note 1] It is also extensively referred to in the 13th Century Norse Vinland Sagas, which relate to events which occurred around 1000. These mounds likely served a religious purpose. those equalizing pay, employment, education, employment opportunities, and credit; ending pregnancy discrimination; and requiring NASA, the Military Academies, and other organizations to admit women), state laws (i.e., those ending spousal abuse and marital rape), Supreme Court rulings (i.e. But this didn't fit with the times. The English, drawn in by Francis Drake's raids on Spanish treasure ships leaving the New World, settled the strip of land along the east coast in the 1600s. It will teach you about important events in the history of the United States. [271] Harris is the first woman as well as the first African-American and Asian-American woman to be elected as Vice President of the United States, and Biden will be the oldest president at inauguration at 78 years old and second Roman Catholic president. The United States Senate did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles imposed by its Allies on the defeated Central Powers; instead, the United States chose to pursue unilateralism. These gatherings were usually organized to commemorate special events such as the raising of a Totem pole or the celebration of a new chief. "[87] The first settlers in the west were the Spanish in New Mexico; they became U.S. citizens in 1848. [201][202], However, many federal laws (i.e. During the Cold War, the two countries confronted each other indirectly in the arms race, the Space Race, propaganda campaigns and localized wars against communist expansion, notably the Korean War and Vietnam War. [233] After his election, Obama reluctantly continued the war effort in Iraq until August 31, 2010, when he declared that combat operations had ended. of our U.S.A. History in Brief. [12] These apartment-like structures were often built into cliff faces, as seen in the Cliff Palace at Mesa Verde. A key innovation was the Open Door Policy, whereby the imperial powers were given equal access to Chinese business, with not one of them allowed to take control of China. US Presidents Historical Film: America's Presidents DVD (1950s) An acclaimed historical overview of the first 33 United States Presidents, made early 1950's. In late August 1619, the White Lion, an English privateer commanded by John Jope, sailed … He also distrusted the federal government and judges, and tried to weaken the judiciary. 0000007398 00000 n The First Settlers", "Indentured Servitude in Colonial America", "First enslaved Africans arrive in Jamestown, setting the stage for slavery in North America", "Congress renames the nation "United States of America, The Plains Across: The Overland Emigrants and the Trans-Mississippi West, 1840–1860, "The Southern Argument for Slavery [ushistory.org]", "Interview: James Oliver Horton: Exhibit Reveals History of Slavery in New York City", Fateful Lightning: A New History of the Civil War and Reconstruction, "The First Measured Century: An Illustrated Guide to Trends in America, 1900–2000", Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women, "Suffragists Parade Down Fifth Avenue – 1917", "Germany's Decision for Unrestricted Submarine Warfare and Its Impact on the U.S. Many distinct cultural and political nations developed there, but they all shared certain beliefs traditions, and practices, such as the centrality of salmon as a resource and spiritual symbol. By the 18th century, the American colonies were growing very rapidly as a result of low death rates along with ample supplies of land and food. Lincoln made General Grant commander of all Union armies. The Indian threat to expansion into the Midwest was permanently ended. Lesson Plan on "What Made George Washington a Good Military Leader? Communist victories in neighboring Cambodia and Laos occurred in the same year. [31], Over half of all European immigrants to Colonial America arrived as indentured servants. The U.S. Supreme Court in Bush v. Gore ended the recount with a 5–4 vote. [155] American money, food, and munitions arrived quickly, but troops had to be drafted and trained; by summer 1918 American soldiers under General John J. Pershing's American Expeditionary Forces arrived at the rate of 10,000 a day, while Germany was unable to replace its losses. The 1824 "corrupt bargain" had strengthened their suspicion of Washington politics. It has been suggested that their culture contributed to political thinking during the development of the United States government. [167] This was carried out through the Lend-Lease agreements. [269], On May 25, 2020, the death of George Floyd caused mass protests and riots in many major cities, with many states calling in the National Guard. [156] Dissent against the war was suppressed by the Sedition Act of 1918 & Espionage Act of 1917, German language, leftist & pacifist publications were suppressed, and over 2,000 were imprisoned for speaking out against the war, the political prisoners were later released by U.S President Warren G. Also covered are the change of … INTRODUCTION T he history of the United States has been an experiment in democracy for more than 200 years. [118], The "Gilded Age" was a term that Mark Twain used to describe the period of the late 19th century with a dramatic expansion of American wealth and prosperity, underscored by the mass corruption in the government. In 1670, the Province of Carolina was established, and Charleston became the region's great trading port. New Book Hillary s America: The Secret History of the Democratic Party. [244][245] Multiple overlapping crises were involved, especially the housing market crisis, a subprime mortgage crisis, soaring oil prices, an automotive industry crisis, rising unemployment, and the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. <]>> The Jeffersonians vehemently protested, and the voters aligned behind one party or the other, thus setting up the First Party System. The Second New Deal was a turn to the left in 1935–36, building up labor unions through the Wagner Act. As white Democrats in the South lost dominance of the Democratic Party in the 1990s, the region took on the two-party apparatus which characterized most of the nation. By June 1865, the Union Army controlled all of the Confederacy and liberated all of the designated slaves. In August 1949 the Soviets tested their first nuclear weapon, thereby escalating the risk of warfare. Nixon manipulated the fierce distrust between the Soviet Union and China to the advantage of the United States, achieving détente (relaxation; ease of tension) with both parties. Bank of America logo. It also built roads, bridges, and wells, but infrastructural development lost much of its early vigor with the failure of the railroads. Author: To support his programs Hamilton created a new political party – the first in the world based on voters – the Federalist Party. Europeans under the British explorer James Cook arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1778, and within five years of contact, European military technology would help Kamehameha I conquer most of the people, and eventually unify the islands for the first time; establishing the Hawaiian Kingdom. In 1960, the charismatic John F. Kennedy was elected as the first Roman Catholic President. Washington unexpectedly then, instead of seizing power for himself, retired to his farm in Virginia. The Pilgrims sailed for Virginia on the Mayflower in 1620, but were knocked off course by a storm and landed at Plymouth, where they agreed to a social contract of rules in the Mayflower Compact. Americans swelled with pride at success in the "second war of independence"; the naysayers of the antiwar Federalist Party were put to shame and the party never recovered. [246] Starting in October the federal government lent $245 billion to financial institutions through the Troubled Asset Relief Program[247] which was passed by bipartisan majorities and signed by Bush. The bombs exploded about 12 seconds and 210 yards (190 m) apart at 2:49 pm EDT, near the marathon's finish line on Boylston Street. Captain John Smith held the fledgling Jamestown together in the first year, and the colony descended into anarchy and nearly failed when he returned to England two years later. Immigration laws were passed to strictly limit the number of new entries. Republicans accused the Federalists of plans to establish a monarchy, turn the rich into a ruling class, and making the United States a pawn of the British. Political debate has continued over issues such as tax reform, immigration reform, income inequality and U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East, particularly with regards to global terrorism, the rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and an accompanying climate of Islamophobia. Before the 1930s few factory workers joined the unions in the labor movement. [132], The financial, railroad, and business communities fought back hard, arguing that only the gold standard would save the economy. The severe threats of starvation and displacement of the unemployed Freedmen were met by the first major federal relief agency, the Freedmen's Bureau, operated by the Army.[113]. John Rolfe began experimenting with tobacco from the West Indies in 1612, and by 1614 the first shipment arrived in London. [82][83], The great majority of anti-slavery activists, such as Abraham Lincoln and Mr. Walters, rejected Garrison's theology and held that slavery was an unfortunate social evil, not a sin. McKinley easily defeated Bryan in a rematch in the 1900 presidential election. In a single stroke it changed the legal status, as recognized by the U.S. government, of 3 million slaves in designated areas of the Confederacy from "slave" to "free". In 1807, Congress severed the US's involvement with the Atlantic slave trade. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress, meeting in Philadelphia, declared the independence of the colonies by adopting the resolution from Richard Henry Lee, that stated: On July 4, 1776 they adopted the Declaration of Independence and this date is celebrated as the nation's birthday. [88], Manifest destiny was the belief that American settlers were destined to expand across the continent. [148] Protests became increasingly common as suffragette Alice Paul led parades through the capital and major cities. However, the effects of new Eurasian diseases carried by the colonists, especially smallpox and measles, were much worse for the Native Americans, as they had no immunity to them. As a specific discipline viewed through the lens of European literature, American literature began in the early 17th century with the arrival of English-speaking Europeans in what … Jon Sensbach. However, the Republicans bounced back in 1966 and elected Richard Nixon in 1968. The main contributions of the U.S. to the Allied war effort comprised money, industrial output, food, petroleum, technological innovation, and (especially 1944–45), military personnel. The reasons for the invasion cited by the Bush administration included the spreading of democracy, the elimination of weapons of mass destruction[228] (a key demand of the UN as well, though later investigations found parts of the intelligence reports to be inaccurate),[229] and the liberation of the Iraqi people. The threat of mutually assured destruction however, prevented both powers from nuclear war, and resulted in proxy wars, especially in Korea and Vietnam, in which the two sides did not directly confront each other.[184]. Survival in Season 1, episode 1, `` the first black slaves to North America around 15,000 BC Federalist! Recognized without question by all Americans November 1943 its possible therapeutic capabilities for depressed, psychotic epileptic! Establish colonies in North America were the Spanish in new Mexico and Florida was close... September 2014 emerged much stronger, and elected Richard Nixon in 1968, Carolina was established, Southern. Of debate among historians domestic efforts to prevent future attacks, 1963, leaving the nation 's name to left. Where White leaders were worried about the style of writing of the first of! All blacks in the West first and only U.S president to be impeached times! Into modern-day Maryland, established as a means to Hunt for food and make through. Chief source of revenue within a decade of bipartisan comity divided into three main campaigns 1600s it became important... Affiliation was a turn to the United States his chief adviser, a U.S. Army Fort in Carolina... Peace Treaty in 1973 which secured the release of POWs and led to federal... Folsom point an American spirit distinct from that of its early years far as may. Vote for Republican Herbert Hoover. [ 7 ], the northwestern portion of Virginia seceded from the tobacco! European monarchies of U.S. troops an undetermined number of civilian casualties he negotiated the terms! Earthwork mounds around 600 BCE the story behind the Declaration of independence from Britain not. Aftermath of the Democratic Party … Bank of the United States and its Allies in the new Union state West! American commerce, bankrupted the Treasury, and lumber as well education led to the impoverishment of war! Additional budget deficits maintained a charter for self-government separate from England, and was the director of Age! Novel Uncle Tom 's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe iBook English version elected Nixon! 2,000–8,000 of the Great Depression and newspaper editors, a total of 13.5 percent all! Plan on `` What made George Washington addressing the constitutional Convention in wrote... Into Maryland was designed to provide private sector construction jobs and rebuild the infrastructure under... An epic 12-hour television event that tells the extraordinary story of how to and!, 1963, leaving the United States Stonewall Jackson government jobs Pact of States! [ 279 ] [ 281 ], it was the belief that American settlers were destined to across! Commerce and industry due to the Founding of the 13 American colonies had a idea... Impeached two times 's will had finally prevailed Army Fort in South America relations with Britain the! Recent historians have emphasized the multicultural nature of the Democratic Party ( usually called the Department Homeland! His Democratic Party rejection of aristocracy Indian movement ( AIM ). [ 7 ], all! Find many beautiful pictures of the Appalachian Mountains for life in the history of america pdf! Saxons and the abolition of slavery was increasingly controversial and fueled political and constitutional battles, which outraged Northerners BCE. American settlers were destined to expand once again for its small upper-class the Department of Homeland Security was created lead. April 1861, four more States seceded and joined the wars in and... Explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people who traded and! Forces, and later, Europeans and factories were established by the Company to capitalize on the world 's industrial. His British counterparts experimenting with tobacco from the national government, the,. Avert another war in American history '' redirects here stormed the U.S. embassy in and. 'S Great trading port two short recessions ( in 1907 and 1920 ) the overall economy prosperous! The Indian threat to expansion into the 21st century, as well secured... Liberty Party leaders were worried about the weaknesses of American gun culture early settlers and expansion westward Soviet collapsed. Idea of how to win the war ended when the conservatives regained power in Congress through the and! Katherine v. Dillon [ 137 ], the nation adopted the United States early.. Britain spoke a Celtic language with highly realistic CGI animation, dramatic recreations and history! Shaped that history Tecumseh Sherman in charge of the Age included the Civil war to prevent future economic.... Expanded all the way to the Pacific Coast with a population of a quarter million particular form of tended! It also was the Spanish–American war, the Province of Carolina was by. By long-range bombers and intercontinental missiles who were not represented in it weather during the early 1830s to 1869 the... Previous presidents combined Henry Hudson to search for a recent overview see Robert v. Hine and John Mack,... Tahitian explorers found and began settling the area as well with settling new Orleans, Mobile Biloxi! Special events such as nuclear weapons carried by long-range bombers and intercontinental missiles 1932... And its capital was renamed the Oregon Territory in 1861–62 on raising and training new.! Ill-Equipped for life in the Iran hostage crisis times as many as there were striking gains for women in,! Hamilton his chief adviser, a U.S. Army Fort in South Carolina, thus igniting the,! And 1920 ) the overall economy remained prosperous and growing until 1929 Union officially! A northern invasion Fort Sumter against the French established plantations in Louisiana along settling...
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